CarthageOverview of the rise and fall of Carthage, with a detailed discussion of Hannibal's victories against Rome, including the Battle of Cannae, and his later defeat at the Battle of Zama. The Greek historian Polybius and the Roman historian Livy are the two primary sources for his life.
Foundation[ edit ] The city of Carthage site of its ruins near present-day Tunis was founded by Phoenicians coming from the eastern Mediterranean coast. Its name, pronounced Kart Hudesht in their Punic languagemeant "new city". Greek historian from Sicily, gives the date of the founding of Carthage as thirty-eight years before the first Olympiad B.
Legends alive in the African city for centuries assigned its foundation to a queen of A history of hannibals rule, Elissa, also called Dido.
|Hannibal - Wikipedia||Whilst archaeological discoveries will, of course, turn up from time to time to help us understand more of Hannibal and of Carthageit is rare indeed, and perhaps the rarest of all things for an historian to discover a whole Hannibal battlefield.|
|Latest From History Channel||There is a mistake in the scale.|
|Lost Location||There is a mistake in the scale. The Celts were amassing forces to invade farther south in Italy, presumably with Carthaginian backing.|
|The Great Battle of Tagus||His most famous campaign took place during the Second Punic Warwhen he caught the Romans off guard by crossing the Alps.|
|Why the Battle of Cannae Was Hannibal's Greatest Victory||The context of his family background, upbringing and later career are included.|
Hasdrubal of Carthage, younger brother of Hannibal Barca —c. Trading partnerships were established among the Numidian Berbers to the west along the African coast as well as to the east in Libya ; other stations were located in southern Sardinia and western SicilyIbiza in the BalearicsLixus south of the straits, and Gades north of the straits, with additional trading stations in the south and east of Iberia.
Also, Carthage enjoyed an able ally in the Etruscanswho then ruled a powerful state to the north of the infant city of Rome. Carthage would soon supplant the Iberian city of Tartessus in carrying the tin trade from Oestrymnis. The traders of Carthage were known to be secretive about business and particularly about trade routes; it was their practice to keep the straits to the Atlantic closed to the Greeks.
Then the Etruscans attacked Greek colonies in the Campania south of Rome, but unsuccessfully. As an eventual result, Rome threw off their Etruscan kings of the Tarquin dynasty.
The Roman Republic and Carthage in entered into a treaty which set out to define their commercial zones. This Greek threat, plus the foreign conquest of Phoenicia in the Levant, had caused many Phoenician colonies to come under the leadership of Carthage.
A long struggle ensued with intermittent warfare between Syracuse led by e. Later, near Syracuse Punic armies defeated the Greek leader Agathocles r.
Yet Carthage again defeated Agathocles — Greece, preoccupied with its conquest of the Persian Empire in the east, eventually became supplanted in the western Mediterranean by Rome, the new rival of Carthage.
Carthage also established its authority directly among the Numidian Berber peoples in the lands immediately surrounding the city, which grew ever more prosperous.
Religion of Carthage[ edit ] The Phoenicians of Tyre brought their lifestyle and inherited customs with them to Northwest Africa. Their religious practices and beliefs were generally similar to those of their neighbors in Canaanwhich in turn shared characteristics common throughout the ancient Semitic world.
In Canaan the supreme god was called El, which means "god" in common Semitic.
The important storm god was called Baal, which means "master". Other gods were called after royalty, e. Religion in Carthage Constitution of Carthage[ edit ] The government of Carthage was undoubtedly patterned after the Phoenician, especially the mother city of Tyre, but Phoenician cities had kings and Carthage apparently did not.
Yet the Suffet at Carthage was more the executive leader, but as well served in a judicial role. Birth and wealth were the initial qualifications. A crucial difference was that the Suffet had no military power. Carthaginian generals marshalled mercenary armies and were separately elected.
From about to the Magonid family monopolized the top military position; later the Barcid family acted similarly.
Eventually it came to be that, after a war, the commanding general had to testify justifying his actions before a court of judges.
We do not have a name for this body. At times members would travel with an army general on campaign. Members also formed permanent committees. The institution had several hundred members from the wealthiest class who held office for life.
Vacancies were probably filled by co-option. From among its members were selected the Judges mentioned above. Later the would come to judge not only army generals but other office holders as well.
Aristotle regarded the as most important; he compared it to the ephorate of Sparta with regard to control over security.
At some stage there also came to be independent self-perpetuating boards of five who filled vacancies and supervised non-military government administration. When deadlocked the Suffets and the quasi-senatorial institution might request the assembly to vote, or in very crucial matters in order to achieve political coherence.
The assembly members had no legal wealth or birth qualification. How its members were selected is unknown, e.In B.C., Hannibal of Carthage led an attack on Saguntum, an independent city allied with Rome, which sparked the outbreak of the Second Punic War.
He then marched his massive army across the Pyrenees and Alps into central Italy in what would be remembered as one of the most famous campaigns in history. As the Roman Senate made plans to invade Carthage, Hannibal started one of history's most daring marches.
He led his forces along eastern Spain, over the Pyrenees Mountains, and across the . The first day of the Battle of the Somme in is infamous for delivering an inglorious record for the British Army; over the course of just 24 hours, 20, British soldiers were killed – the highest number in the country’s history.
This enormous toll, which came in the age of mechanised and mass mobilised [ ]. The Carthaginian general Hannibal ( BCE) was one of the greatest military leaders in history.
His most famous campaign took place during the Second Punic War (), when he caught the Romans off guard by crossing the Alps. Play as Hannibal Barca in Total War: ARENA - a free-to-play, team-based online strategy game that puts players in the shoes of legendary commanders and military units from history in epic tactical battles.
The history of Hannibal Barca, one of the greatest military commanders of the ancient world, is one which has fascinated historians and generals throughout the last two millennia, and yet his final secrets seem often set to never reveal themselves.