Passed that age, which is puberty, if one has not learned to talk in a certain language passed puberty then it will be way more difficult for that individual to acquire language and almost impossible to truly master it. Researchers in the field are debating over if language acquisition is more of a natural or nurture influence.
Sigerist Stemmatics or stemmatology is a rigorous approach to textual criticism. Karl Lachmann — greatly contributed to making this Critica period hypothesis research famous, even though he did not invent it.
This specific meaning shows the relationships of the surviving witnesses the first known example of such a stemma, albeit with the name, dates from Relations between the lost intermediates are determined by the same process, placing all extant manuscripts in a family tree or stemma codicum descended from a single archetype.
The process of constructing the stemma is called recension, or the Latin recensio. If one reading occurs more often than another at the same level of the tree, then the dominant reading is selected.
If two competing readings occur equally often, then the editor uses judgment to select the correct reading. The step of examination, or examinatio is applied to find corruptions. Where the editor concludes that the text is corrupt, it is corrected by a process called "emendation", or emendatio also sometimes called divinatio.
Emendations not supported by any known source are sometimes called conjectural emendations. The steps of examinatio and emendatio resemble copy-text editing.
In fact, the other techniques can be seen as special cases of stemmatics in which a rigorous family history of the text cannot be determined but only approximated. If it seems that one manuscript is by far the best text, then copy text editing is appropriate, and if it seems that a group of manuscripts are good, then eclecticism on that group would be proper.
In biology, the technique is used to determine the evolutionary relationships between different species. The manuscripts are then grouped according to their shared characteristics.
The difference between phylogenetics and more traditional forms of statistical analysis is that, rather than simply arranging the manuscripts into rough groupings according to their overall similarity, phylogenetics assumes that they are part of a branching family tree and uses that assumption to derive relationships between them.
This makes it more like an automated approach to stemmatics. However, where there is a difference, the computer does not attempt to decide which reading is closer to the original text, and so does not indicate which branch of the tree is the "root"—which manuscript tradition is closest to the original.
Other types of evidence must be used for that purpose. Phylogenetics faces the same difficulty as textual criticism: The same phenomenon is widely present among living organisms, as instances of horizontal gene transfer or lateral gene transfer and genetic recombinationparticularly among bacteria.
Further exploration of the applicability of the different methods for coping with these problems across both living organisms and textual traditions is a promising area of study. Shaw's edition of Dante's Commedia uses phylogenetic and traditional methods alongside each other in a comprehensive exploration of relations among seven early witnesses to Dante's text.
If a scribe refers to more than one source when creating his copy, then the new copy will not clearly fall into a single branch of the family tree.
In the stemmatic method, a manuscript that is derived from more than one source is said to be contaminated. The method also assumes that scribes only make new errors—they do not attempt to correct the errors of their predecessors.
When a text has been improved by the scribe, it is said to be sophisticated, but "sophistication" impairs the method by obscuring a document's relationship to other witnesses, and making it more difficult to place the manuscript correctly in the stemma. The stemmatic method requires the textual critic to group manuscripts by commonality of error.
It is required, therefore, that the critic can distinguish erroneous readings from correct ones. This assumption has often come under attack. Greg noted, "That if a scribe makes a mistake he will inevitably produce nonsense is the tacit and wholly unwarranted assumption. He defended an authenticity of the Pericopa Adulterae John 7: According to him Erasmus in his Novum Instrumentum omne did not incorporate the Comma from Codex Montfortianusbecause of grammar differences, but used Complutensian Polyglotta.
According to him the Comma was known for Tertullian. But in fact, the critic employs conjecture at every step of the process. Some of the method's rules that are designed to reduce the exercise of editorial judgment do not necessarily produce the correct result.
For example, where there are more than two witnesses at the same level of the tree, normally the critic will select the dominant reading. However, it may be no more than fortuitous that more witnesses have survived that present a particular reading.
A plausible reading that occurs less often may, nevertheless, be the correct one. It does not account for the possibility that the original author may have revised his work, and that the text could have existed at different times in more than one authoritative version.
He surveyed editions of medieval French texts that were produced with the stemmatic method, and found that textual critics tended overwhelmingly to produce bifid trees, divided into just two branches.
He concluded that this outcome was unlikely to have occurred by chance, and that therefore, the method was tending to produce bipartite stemmas regardless of the actual history of the witnesses.
He suspected that editors tended to favor trees with two branches, as this would maximize the opportunities for editorial judgment as there would be no third branch to "break the tie" whenever the witnesses disagreed.The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age.
The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. The Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition: A Statistical Critique and a Reanalysis acquisition research, the critical period hypothesis (cph) holds that the .
the history of science and the history of the scientific disciplines. goals and branching of a research program in the history of geography (*) horacio capel. Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Bible, with the state in which these exist at the present day.
Jul 25, · sla research adopted the critical period hypothesis (cph) and applied it to second and foreign language learning, resulting in a host of studies.