History and varieties Literary Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, has been strongly influenced by Sanskrit. Its standard form is based on the Khari Boli dialectfound to the north and east of Delhi.
DutchEnglishFrenchGermanGreekand English as a global languag are all official languages at the national level in multiple countries see table above. Furthermore, not all national languages have been accorded the status of official EU languages. These include Luxembourgishan official language of Luxembourg sinceand Turkishan official language of Cyprus.
All languages of the EU are also working languages. The reply is drafted in the same language. Regulations and other documents of general application are drafted in the twenty-four official languages. The Official Journal of the European Union is published in the twenty-four official languages.
For internal purposes the EU institutions are allowed by law to choose their own language arrangements. The European Commissionfor example, conducts its internal business in three languages, EnglishFrenchand German sometimes called "procedural languages"and goes fully multilingual only for public information and communication purposes.
The European Parliamenton the other hand, has members who need working documents in their own languages, so its document flow is fully multilingual from the outset.
The linguistic translations are expensive. The EU Parliament has made clear that its member states have autonomy for language education, English as a global languag by treaty the European Community must respect.
Romance languages are spoken in western, southern European regions; they include French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. The Slavic languages are to be found in the central Europe and the Balkans in southern Europe. The Basque languagea language isolate whose roots are unknown, is an official language in some parts of northern Spain, but not an official language of the EU.
Most official EU languages are written in the Latin script. The two exceptions are Greekwhich is written in the Greek scriptand Bulgarianwhich is written in Cyrillic script.
With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 JanuaryCyrillic became the third official script of the European Unionfollowing the Latin and Greek scripts.
Maltese[ edit ] Although Maltese is an official language, the Council set a transitional period of three years from 1 Mayduring which the institutions were not obliged to draft all acts in Maltese.
This meant that the founding EU Treaty was restated in Irish. Irish was also listed in that Treaty and all subsequent EU Treaties as one of the authentic languages of the Treaties. However, despite being the first official language of the Republic of Ireland and having been accorded minority-language status in the UK region of Northern IrelandIrish was not made an official working language of the EU until 1 January This new regulation outlines an actual schedule of gradual reduction spread across five years starting from If EU institutions have sufficient available translation capacity, and if no other Council regulations state otherwise, the derogation completely ends by January According to the Irish census figures, there are 1.
In negotiations with Croatiahowever, it was accepted that Croatian would become a separate official EU language. With the addition of Sweden and Finland in the s, and the Eastern European states in the s, English slowly supplanted French as the dominant working language of the institutions.
The role of English as a lingua franca is believed to be likely to continue, given how heavily staff rely on it. Some of them may have some official status within the member state and count many more speakers than some of the lesser-used official languages.
The official languages of EU are in bold. In the list those idioms deemed by member states as mere dialects of an official language are not included. However many of these dialects are often viewed as separate languages: Languages of France[ edit ] The French constitution stipulates French as the sole language of the Republic.
Since the modificationsarticle of the Constitution adds that "regional languages form part of the French heritage". These languages enjoy no official status under the French state and regions are not permitted to bestow any such status themselves.
Since DecemberBreton and Gallo are officially recognized in Brittany. The th Council Meeting of the Council of the European Union in Luxembourg on 13 Junedecided to authorise limited use at EU level of languages recognised by member states other than the official working languages.
The Spanish government has assented to the provisions in respect of these languages. The status of Catalan, spoken by over 9 million EU citizens just over 1.
In turn, it will translate the Ombudsman's decisions from Spanish into the language of the complainant. Until such a body is established the agreement will not become effective; so far the body has not been created nor there is any budget allocated to this end.
This leaving Catalan speakers without access to EU institutions in their mother tongue. Galician in particular, not being itself a European Parliament official language, can be used and is in fact used by some European Parliament constituents as a spoken dialect of Portuguese due to its similarity with this language.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Britain that would later take their name, England, both names ultimately deriving from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic tranceformingnlp.com is closely related to the .