At the age of three, the child was playing with some of the tools, trying to make holes in a piece of leather with an awl. Squinting closely at the surface, he pressed down hard to drive the point in, and the awl glanced across the tough leather and struck him in one of his eyes. A local physician bound and patched the affected eye and even arranged for Braille to be met the next day in Paris by a surgeon, but no treatment could save the damaged organ. In agony, the young boy suffered for weeks as the wound became severely infected; an infection which then spread to his other eye, likely due to sympathetic ophthalmia.
History[ edit ] Blissymbols was invented by Charles K. His German wife Claire managed to get him released, and they finally became exiles in Shanghaiwhere Bliss had a cousin. Bliss devised Blissymbols while a refugee at the Shanghai Ghetto and Sydneyfrom to He wanted to create an easy-to-learn international auxiliary language to allow communication between different linguistic communities.
He was inspired by Chinese characterswith which he became Essay on braille system at Shanghai. Bliss's system was explained in his work Semantography 2nd ed. In I named my symbols World Writing, then chose in an international scientific term Semantography from Greek semanticos significant meaning, and graphein to write My friends argued that is customary to name new writing systems after the inventors Blissymbolics, or Blissymbols, or simply Bliss Bliss then adopted the name Blissymbolics in order that no researcher could plagiarize his system of symbols.
According to Arika OkrentBliss used to complain about the way the teachers at the OCCC were using the symbols, in relation with the proportions of the symbols and other questions: The ultimate objective of the OCCC program was to use Blissymbols as a practical way to teach the children to express themselves in their mother tongue, since the Blissymbols provided visual keys to understand the meaning of the English words, especially the abstract words.
In his work Semantography Bliss had not provided a systematic set of definitions for his symbols there was a provisional vocabulary index instead pp. For example, they might interpret a tomato as a vegetable —according to the English definition of tomato— even though the ideal Blissymbol of vegetable was restricted by Bliss to just vegetables growing underground.
In spite of this, in Bliss granted an exclusive world license, for use with disabled children, to the new Blissymbolics Communication Foundation directed by Shirley McNaughton later called Blissymbolics Communication International, BCI. Nevertheless, in Bliss claimed that this agreement was violated so that he was deprived of effective control of his symbol system.
Easter Seals, the charitable foundation Bliss spent the money on a big publication run of his own Blissymbols teaching manual.
Practitioners of Blissymbolics that is, speech and language therapists and users maintain that some users who have learned to communicate with Blissymbolics find it easier to learn to read and write traditional orthography in the local spoken language than do users who did not know Blissymbolics.
So, whether Blissymbolics constitutes an unspoken language is a controversial question, whatever its practical utility may be. Some linguists, such as John DeFrancis   and J.
Marshall Unger  have argued that genuine ideographic writing systems with the same capacities as natural languages do not exist.
It is not certain, however, that they have examined Blissymbols.Blissymbols or Blissymbolics was conceived as an ideographic writing system called Semantography consisting of several hundred basic symbols, each representing a concept, which can be composed together to generate new symbols that represent new tranceformingnlp.commbols differ from most of the world's major writing systems in that the characters do not correspond at all to the sounds of any .
Braille's solution was to use 6-dot cells and to assign a specific pattern to each letter of the alphabet.
At first, braille was a one-to-one transliteration of French orthography, but soon various abbreviations, contractions, and even logograms were developed, creating a system much more like shorthand.
Microsoft Word is a tyrant of the imagination, a petty, unimaginative, inconsistent dictator that is ill-suited to any creative writer's use. Worse: it is a near-monopolist, dominating the word processing field.
|[pic]Braille From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Braille System) Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the blind writing method. For other uses, see Braille (disambiguation).
Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) The annual Pennsylvania System School Assessment is a standards-based, criterion-referenced assessment which provides students, parents, educators and citizens with an understanding of student and school performance related to the attainment of proficiency of the academic standards.
Braille is a system of reading and writing by touch used by the blind. It consists of arrangements of dots which make up letters of the alphabet, numbers, and punctuation marks. The basic Braille symbol, called the Braille cell, consists of six dots arranged in the formation .