Parenthetical documentation in research papers

Literacy Education Online MLA Parenthetical Documentation In MLA style, in-text citations, called parenthetical citations, are used to document any external sources used within a document unless the material cited is considered general knowledge. The parenthetical citations direct readers to the full bibliographic citations listed in the Works Cited, located at the end of the document.

Parenthetical documentation in research papers

What in the world is that? It is way to let people know where your information comes from. Whenever you use material that you got from another source in your research project, you must let your audience know immediately where it came from, right after you use it. Why should I do it? It can get you in big trouble.

It gives your Thesis Statement a lot more credibility because you obviously didn't just make up what you are claiming.

Parenthetical documentation in research papers

You did your research! Your reader can check the original source for more information or for accuracy if they want to challenge you. When do I have to do it? You must cite your sources when using the following kinds of materials, in whole or in part: Direct quotations whether in written or oral formats includes stories, speeches, fiction and nonfiction Paraphrased quotations these are quotes whose words you have changed somewhat Statistical Data numbers about things Images that are attributed to someone includes cartoons, photos, maps, artwork, computer graphics-but not free "clip art" Song lyrics Original ideas that are attributed to someone else, even if you put them in your own words How do I do it?

The word "parenthetical" is a clue to the meaning. It means "within parentheses". There are two main ways to do this type of citing or "documentation".

Parenthetical References - Examples in MLA Style - A Research Guide for Students

One way to do it is this: At the end of the borrowed material, put in parentheses the author's last name and the page s where the material is found within the source.

It looks like this: Tuchman is the author's last name and the quote is on page of a book you will list in your Works Cited at the end of your project.

Parenthetical documentation in research papers

Therefore the reader can get that book immediately if they want to and check that you have copied the quote correctly, or simply read the book, if they have the interest. The quote is in quotation marks because it is used directly as found within the source.

If you paraphrase you don't have to use quotation marks. Another way to do it is this: Use the author's name in the text that you write and put the page number s in parentheses at the end of the borrowed material.

That way looks like this: Barbara Tuchman said,"No nation in the world has so many drastic problems squeezed into so small a place, under such urgent pressure of time and heavy burden of history, as Israel" Although it looks pretty straightforward, you will run into some unusual cases, like books with more than one author, books with no author, websites, interviews, etc.

The first is Tip Sheet Making a Works Cited. Go to the section on "Documentation: Citing sources in the Text". These 2 resources will give you the many variations of citation formats. Or, you can ask a librarian!MLA Parenthetical Reference and Endnotes/Footnotes.

A. Parenthetical Reference. A parenthetical reference (sometimes called “in-text” citation) is . The simplest way to cite sources is to use Parenthetical references or Parenthetical documentation. The author’s last name and page number(s) are placed in parentheses in the text to give credit to sources.

Describes ways to get help with writing in APA Style, including links to tutorials, the APA Style Blog, and other learning resources.

The Writing Center at Empire State College Genesee Valley Center Rochester, NY. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS IN THE MLA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style.

MLA DOCUMENTATION FORM33 Sample MLA Research Paper The research paper on the following pages is an example of how a paper is put together following MLA title page and outline are not required for MLA papers, but if your instructor asks for one or both, use the models and guidelines that follow.

A popular documentation style for research papers (MLA). a document you can use to communicate the results of research a popular documentation style for research papers (APA).

Sample Parenthetical References in MLA Style - A Research Guide