Certified Educator The Medieval worldview was drastically different than that of the Renaissance era. In the Medieval period, feudalism was a way of life: Instead, feudal lords controlled the land, which was worked by peasants that were kept in poverty with no hope of owning anything or slipping away from the oppressive control of the nobility. This was also a time of several plagues, which began in the fourteenth century.
He argued that atoms just crashing into other atoms could never produce the beauty and form of the world. In Plato's Timaeus 28b—29a the character of Timeaus insisted that the cosmos was not eternal but was created, although its creator framed it after an eternal, unchanging model.
One part of that creation were the four simple bodies of fire, air, water, and earth. But Plato did not consider these corpuscles to be the most basic level of reality, for in his view they were made up of an unchanging level of reality, which was mathematical.
These simple bodies were geometric solidsthe faces of which were, in turn, made up of triangles. The square faces of the cube were each made up of four isosceles right-angled triangles and the triangular faces of the tetrahedron, octahedron, and icosahedron were each made up of six right-angled triangles.
He postulated the geometric structure of the simple bodies of the four elements as summarized in the adjacent table.
The cube, with its flat base and stability, was assigned to earth; the tetrahedron was assigned to fire because its penetrating points and sharp edges made it mobile. The points and edges of the octahedron and icosahedron were blunter and so these less mobile bodies were assigned to air and water.
Since the simple bodies could be decomposed into triangles, and the triangles reassembled into atoms of different elements, Plato's model offered a plausible account of changes among the primary substances. Aristotle considered the existence of a void, which was required by atomic theories, to violate physical principles.
Change took place not by the rearrangement of atoms to make new structures, but by transformation of matter from what it was in potential to a new actuality. A piece of wet clay, when acted upon by a potter, takes on its potential to be an actual drinking mug. Aristotle has often been criticized for rejecting atomism, but in ancient Greece the atomic theories of Democritus remained "pure speculations, incapable of being put to any experimental test.
Granted that atomism was, in the long run, to prove far more fruitful than any qualitative theory of matter, in the short run the theory that Aristotle proposed must have seemed in some respects more promising".
Unlike the atomism of Democritus, the Aristotelian "natural minimum" was not conceptualized as physically indivisible.
Instead, the concept was rooted in Aristotle's hylomorphic worldview, which held that every physical thing is a compound of matter Greek hyle and an immaterial substantial form Greek morphe that imparts its essential nature and structure.
For instance, a rubber ball for a hylomorphist like Aristotle would be rubber matter structured by spherical shape form.
Aristotle's intuition was that there is some smallest size beyond which matter could no longer be structured as flesh, or bone, or wood, or some other such organic substance that for Aristotle, living before the microscope, could be considered homogeneous.
For instance, if flesh were divided beyond its natural minimum, what would be left might be a large amount of the element water, and smaller amounts of the other elements. But whatever water or other elements were left, they would no longer have the "nature" of flesh: Later ancient atomism[ edit ] Epicurus — BCE studied atomism with Nausiphanes who had been a student of Democritus.
Although Epicurus was certain of the existence of atoms and the void, he was less sure we could adequately explain specific natural phenomena such as earthquakes, lightning, comets, or the phases of the Moon Lloyd25—6. Few of Epicurus' writings survive and those that do reflect his interest in applying Democritus' theories to assist people in taking responsibility for themselves and for their own happiness—since he held there are no gods around that can help them.
He understood gods' role as moral ideals.Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable, indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.. References to the concept of atomism and its atoms appeared in both ancient Greek and ancient Indian philosophical traditions.
The ancient Greek atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. The Renaissance originated in Italy during the midth century and spanned through the 17th century.
This “rebirth” was a distinct change from the previous time period, the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance was a cultural rediscovery of Greek and Roman ideas, which was demonstrated in . 8 A Changing View of the Universe: Philosophy and Science in the Elizabethan Era. By the early sixteenth century the mystery of what lay beyond the three . Open Document.
Below is an essay on "Elizabethan View of the Universe" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples/5(1). Western philosophy - Renaissance philosophy: The philosophy of a period arises as a response to social need, and the development of philosophy in the history of Western civilization since the Renaissance has, thus, reflected the process in which creative philosophers have responded to the unique challenges of each stage in the development of Western culture itself.
Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE).. Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.