All of these words apply but none of them really convey what I mean. I read a blog post over the weekend that reminded me about the idea of a continuum that connects all the different writing that I like.
Spinoza profoundly influenced generations of Western intellectuals and writers through his two major works, the Tractatus theologico-politicus Theological-Political Treatise and the Ethic ordine geometrico demonstrata Ethics.
Within this system, the individual free will, personal identity, and traditional distinctions between good and evil are problematized; according to Spinoza, all are part of the divine will that gives purpose to and flows through all life.
His works, divorced as they are from religious dogma but informed by religious faith, have attracted the interest not only of contemporary philosophers, but also of such poets as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, and of scientists such as Albert Einstein.
Biographical Information Born in Amsterdam, Spinoza was the son of prosperous Portuguese Jewish parents who, in the midst of the Spanish Inquisition, had emigrated to the Netherlands. Spinoza also familiarized himself with the unorthodox views of such liberal Jewish thinkers as Maimonides Spinoza essay Abraham ibn Ezra, and acquired a sound education in Latin, mathematics, and the physical sciences.
His search for a supreme truth underlying all things led him to reevaluate Hebrew doctrine and the Bible, however; he soon Spinoza essay a reputation for debating with fellow students about inconsistencies he perceived in the Bible, the possibility that souls are not immortal, and his essentially pantheistic conviction that God and the universe are one.
Following repeated, unsuccessful attempts by Jewish religious authorities to silence Spinoza, his views were finally declared anathema in and he was excommunicated with his family.
Although he returned to Amsterdam a few years later, his stay was brief; during this interim he acquired further classical training under his Latin teacher, the noted classical scholar Frances van den Enden.
While maintaining ties with several learned acquaintances, Spinoza organized a discussion group to consider the chief religious, philosophical, and scientific issues of the day. He also assisted van den Enden in instructing schoolchildren and provided for himself by grinding and polishing lenses, a skill he had learned in early life.
While continuing to craft lenses and fulfill his various teaching duties, Spinoza wrote Korte Verhandeling Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Being and De intellectus emendatione On the Improvement of the Understandingcompleting both by There he continued work on the Ethics, but privately he questioned the advisability of publishing it, given the constraints of the religious current in even so tolerant a nation as Holland.
He thus turned from it to begin work on the Theological-Political Treatise, in which Spinoza engages in biblical criticism and political theory in an effort to liberate philosophers from ecclesiastical proscription, to pave the way for philosophical investigation into the objects and practice of religious belief, and to outline the proper relationship between the individual and the state.
Nonetheless, the work continued to circulate, winning a number of supporters among the scientific community, who admired it for its firm grounding in reason and empirical evidence. In Spinoza moved to The Hague, where he completed the Ethics and circulated the manuscript among his friends.
He resolved not to publish it, for he knew the censure would be overwhelming; by it was rumored that the book attempted to demonstrate the nonexistence of God, a gross misinterpretation.
Spinoza also undertook, but was unable to finish, a Hebrew grammar and a political study presumably meant to expand the ideas of the Theological-Political Treatise. Following a prolonged, debilitating illness brought on it is believed by years of inadvertently inhaling glass dust while grinding lenses, Spinoza died of consumption in Spinoza fashioned his arguments in the Ethics after the geometrical method originated by Euclid; Spinoza believed that, by constructing his philosophical system upon indisputable mathematical analogues and then undergirding his propositions with further notes and proofs, he could insure the soundness of his conclusions.
Spinoza asserted that if one disengages oneself from all overt emotion, positive or negative, lives a temperate life, and meditates constantly upon the divine, one can attain an enlightened state in which complete harmony with God is realized.
He corresponded and conversed with some of the most notable scientists and philosophers of his day, including the German metaphysician and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. He demonstrated his justification for this conviction not only by the clear, precise formulation of his thoughts, but also by the exemplary fashioning of his own life.
In this work, Spinoza emphasizes the moral essence rather than the historical accuracy of the Scriptures, and helped prepare the way for the higher criticism of the early nineteenth century and for the Transcendentalists, universalists, and theologically liberal denominations of modern Christianity and Judaism.Spinoza Spinoza’s Ethics is widely thought of as Spinoza’s greatest work.
One noteworthy claim that he makes in his Ethics is his argument for substance monism, or the existence of only one substance 6 / The Kalam Cosmological Argument The first argument presented is that an actual infinite is a logical impossibility.
1. Biography. Bento (in Hebrew, Baruch; in Latin, Benedictus: all three names mean “blessed”) Spinoza was born in in Amsterdam. He was the middle son in a prominent family of moderate means in Amsterdam’s Portuguese-Jewish community. Albert Camus (—) Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate.
Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speeches—from terrorism and.
Spirituality and Science are both valid!
Our coverage of the Faith versus Reason Debate begins with a brief overview of the Spirituality taught by Christianity and of the, highly similar, Spiritualities upheld by ALL of the non-Christian World Religions.
Benedict De Spinoza (—) Benedict de Spinoza was among the most important of the post-Cartesian philosophers who flourished in the second half of the 17th tranceformingnlp.com made significant contributions in virtually every area of philosophy, and his writings reveal the influence of such divergent sources as Stoicism, Jewish Rationalism, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Descartes, and a variety of.
While not all the essays have Spinoza as their primary subject, he makes at least a cameo appearance in every one, and each essay does address some issue or other that is central to Spinoza's philosophy.